Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Challenges for Coke Cola Essay Example Challenges for Coke Cola Essay Challenges for Coke Cola Essay Among the vastly growing diversity challenges Coca Cola continued to face statewide and globally to preparing their workforce, understanding the culture and overcoming major crisis in Belgium was one of the most challenging. After a mass recall in mid 1999, in which, Children at six schools in Belgium had complained of headache, nausea, vomiting and shivering after drinking Coca-Colas beverages, leading to their hospitalizations. Most of them reported an unusual odor and an off-taste in the drink. Coca-Cola had to recall about 30 million cans and bottles, the largest ever product recall in its 113-year history. For the first time, the entire inventory of Coca-Colas products in Belgium was banned from sale. Coca-Cola sales did drop that year but with their valued effort to regain the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s trust, measures had to be put in place. CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce had to be better prepared, re-trained, and safety precautions were put in place so that things like this would not happen again. The expectations and desired outcomes were directed at upper management to find better ways to connect with the employees and launch new initiatives in the ever-fast changing market. Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) faced strong competition from other beverage companies and needed a way to work more effectively with its customers and partners. This required innovation and a new way of communicating within the corporation. In 2008, CCE acknowledged that the current communications platforms were no longer enabling the innovation and collaboration required to take it to the next level and compete in an increasingly demanding economic environment. The increasing presence of competition were resulting the declining revenues. CCE decided to implement a Microsoft-based hosted worldwide intranet with messaging and collaboration tools, which are accessible to all employees from any device, enabling employees to boost productivity and time with customers. These efforts were lead by the employee leadership head of the company and proved to be another step in the right direction. In a continued effort to prepare their workforce the employees had to take cultural diversity classes in order to learn and understand a different way of life in Belgium. Maximize Benefits CCE, Inc. needed a software system that would evolve as technology changed to help it remain a beverage-industry leader. The company also wanted to deliver merchandising solutions that reflect the differences across stores, as well as implement and maintain controlled quality checks on store-level Plano grams. Additionally, this beverage giant wanted to increase its productivity, efficiency and effectiveness in its Plano gram process. CCE Inc. aximized each benefit by streamlined planning and execution, optimized space and category performance, Increased category sales and profits through more intelligent decision making, delivered store-specific Plano grams that were grounded in shopper insights and store-specific data, Improved Plano gram consistency and accuracy, and Increased category optimization. Minimizing the Challenges Though there were many challenges to deal with and future challenges ahead, the present problems of dealing with water conservation, racial extortionist, were the major issues ahead. Water is the main ingredient in nearly every beverage that they make and without access to safe water supply their business simply cannot exist. Because of the critical importance of water not just to their business, but also to ecosystems, human health, progress and development, The Coca-Cola Company is focusing on conserving and protecting water for people, species and ecosystems throughout the world. Another challenge is deal with frivolous lawsuit from extortionist trying to cash in on the Mega Giant. In November 2000 Coca Cola became the second U. S. Corporation to cave in to racial extortion demands by disgruntled minority employees who only had to allege racial discrimination. For their efforts, they extorted at least $475,200,000 from Coke. Protecting themselves from litigious claims is still a challenge all major companies have to safe guard and the only way to truly protect their assets is through proper management quarterly training, policies and procedures acknowledgements, and safe working environments.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Metropolitan Museum of Art - Research Paper Example Jackson Pollock is an American artist. He was famous for his drip paintings and is a major figure in American painting, specifically in abstract expressionism. He was the purveyor of the drip technique, and this was seen as the origins of action painting. This was his way of challenging the Western style of painting using the easel and brush, with an attempt to leave figurative representation. However, he abandoned the drip painting style just as it was getting famous and returned to painting using figurative elements. War is one of Jackson PollockÃ¢â¬â¢s earliest known paintings and is the only painting he ever titled. This painting was made before he became famous with his drip style. It should be noted that Pollock was a successful draftsman and often used his sketches to execute his artistic ideas. War is a very apt descriptive title for this abstract expressionist painting. This painting was made just after World War II and it shows the brute violence of war: there is a funera l pyre, a human figure being thrown to it, a bull, and a crucifixion. The colors of red and yellow were then added for drama. The elements of this painting hark to PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s war-inspired painting Guernica, where it also had suffering people and the bull as a major figure in the painting. Although it has more figurative elements, this painting has many linear motions that have emerged in his later paintings. The date is significant to understanding this painting: 1947 is a time when war was still fresh in most peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s collective memory, and this was probably the way that Pollock expresses his feelings towards war. This painting symbolizes the harsh effects of war in society, and the ghosts in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness. The media used for this painting are colored pencils and ink. The size is 20 5/8 inches by 26 inches. The size is not exactly relevant to the viewer, but it is easier to observe because of the size. This seminal work of art has influenced the 21st ce ntury because it had paved the way for Jackson PollockÃ¢â¬â¢s Abstract Expressionism genre. It may not be as noticeable here but the traces of Abstract Expressionism are here: the linear movements, the near-abstract figures, the fast composition. This painting may not be as popular as his drip paintings; but this painting shows how he managed to get into that style. Without this painting, abstract expressionism in America would not be as successful. 2. Marilyn Monroe by Richard Avedon (1957) Richard Avedon was one of the most iconic American photographers. His work, Marilyn Monroe, is one of his most popular. Richard Avedon was born and raised in New York City and entered as a photographer for the Merchant Marine. He learned photography there as he took identification pictures of the crew. This picture was taken on May 6, 1957 and it completely embodies the style of portraiture that Richard Avedon helped made famous: his ability to capture the real essence of the subject by lettin g the viewer see the intimate, candid shots of a certain personality in an often bare setting, with no props but just the details needed to compose the picture. He developed his unmistakable style there: stark, high contrast, black and white pictures. The main feature of an Avedon photograph is that it is honest: everything you ought to see in your reflection is seen in an Avedon photograph. This picture, simply called Marilyn Monroe, is named after the subject herself. As a portrait photographer, Avedon shot many famous people, as well as the working class and the criminals; Marilyn Monroe is one of the most famous,
Friday, February 7, 2020
TEAM COMMUNICATION - Essay Example Team communication represents the message from the team and not from the whole team in disjointed fashion. Team communication is also dependent upon who does most of the talking and when. This is essential since there should be harmony and accord in the message that is delivered by the team and everyone needs to be on-board with what is being said and delivered by the team. There should be no misunderstandings in a team. Team communication demonstrates that the team is a whole rather than a disjointed unit. This gives the essence of a single core group that is talking to the general public. It also manifests that the team is committed and dedicated to its respective work ethics and it would not compromise on those principles however difficult the circumstances. There is also a need to appoint a leader who will do all the talking so that the fundamental message that goes out of the team is solitary. Leadership qualities require that the leader gets the best out of the group members no matter how hard and trying the circumstances are. However the role of a team leader cannot be denied its due place. Team communication guarantees that the whole team looks after each other and provides incentives to the working bases of each other. Team communication favors working as a single entity rather than working in different sub-groups which means there are problems within the team itself. The team leader is an essential part of the team Ã¢â¬â he decides who needs to do what and how things will shape up in the future. Team communication can only succeed if each and every team member knows his role and tries to justify his position within the team keeping in mind the assigned task and role. Responsibility thus have to be taken by the team members so that communication becomes easy. In the end, one must realize that team communication plays a central role towards the better functioning of team affairs and matters and it is best to have a
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
BUGusa Inc. WIRETIME Inc. Scenarios Essay BUGusa Inc. is based in any state USA. The company provides critical software technology that allows eaves dropping, sound collection and more to law enforcement agencies throughout the states and federal government within the United States of America. BUGusa Inc. is looking to expand its services, expertise and software at an international level. In the course of their operations there have been some questionable behaviors concerning internal and external factors that are affecting the flow of operations and in some cases, this behavior may cause serious issues with the integrity of the software and its security. WIRETIME Inc. is a fairly new company competing against BUGusa Inc. That seeks to gain information on BUGusa Inc. by infiltrating its workforce and recruiting its best and brightest. Throughout this paper I will address some of those case scenarios and do my best to answer the questions set forth by the assignment. 1st Scenario: Has WIRETIME Inc. committed any torts? BUGusa Inc. vs. WIRETIME Inc. In this case scenario we find that WIRETIME Inc. has made an intentional negative public statement against BUGusa Inc, and more specifically against its product reliability. This behavior by WIRETIME Inc. can be seen as a gross move against BUGusa Inc. reputation, thus causing distrust in their products and services from the general public, state and federal agencies home and abroad. The behavior demonstrated by WIRETIME Inc. while not uncommon in the business world, can be seen as a defamation or libel tort, and this can give BUGusa Inc. leverage against WIRETIME Inc. in a lawsuit. BUGusa Inc. may sue for any marketing related costs it will incur to help its image rise to new and higher levels of trust within its current customers and future customers nationally and internationally; it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ be a surprise if they also try to collect from possible damages it may have incurred from actual or potential loss of profit stemming from the ad circulated by WIRETIME Inc. and the distrust it may have already or potentially cause in the future against BUGusa Inc. WIRETIME Inc. could make the argument that its intention was not to harm BUGusa Inc. reputation because their statements were opinion based and not objective facts. In order to rebuttal the argument by WIRETIME Inc., and to build new trust, BUGusa Inc. could demonstrate that its products and services work well beyond the one-month capabilities that WIRETIME Inc. suggested on its supposedly opinion ad. By demonstrating that their software and services work beyond the one- month mark, they can surely h old their ground against their competitor and possibly create new business and stronger relationships with its consumers, and, at the same time win the lawsuit against WIRETIME Inc. 2nd Scenario: Has WIRETIME Inc. committed any torts? Janet, head of the RD department at BUGusa Inc. has two more years in her contract with her current company. She has been offered a much lucrative opportunity to work for the competition (WIRETIME Inc.) But there is a provision in her current contract that prohibits her to work for the competition for the following two years of her contract even if she was fired before that time expires. This is called the non Ã¢â¬â compete clause. Janet disclosed this information (non Ã¢â¬â compete clause) to the head of human resources at WIRETIME Inc. when he or she offered Janet employment with their company. You would think that this information would deter any further headhunting approach from WIRETIME Inc. because of the consequences JanetÃ¢â¬â¢s breach of duty to BUGusa Inc. may cause her if she accepts and the liability WIRETIME Inc. picks up by performing this intervening event against the non Ã¢â¬â compete clause BUGusa Inc. has on JanetÃ¢â¬â¢s contract. After Janet exposed the non Ã¢â¬â compete clause, the head of human resources at WIRETIME Inc. persisted and offered to increase her pay by 10% and added a $5,000.00 signing bonus to the deal. Janet had a duty to BUGusa Inc. and she committed a breach of contract by accepting the offer from the competing company by evidence of acceptance. There was an offer, acceptance, consideration,Ã consent, capacity, legal purpose, and writing. While it was illegal to work for the competitor, it was not illegal for her to resign from BUGusa Inc. WIRETIME, clearly intended to have Janet violate her legal agreement and contractual restriction with BUGusa Inc. and committed the tort of interference in a contractual relationship between Janet and BUGusa Inc. 3rd Scenario: WIRETIME Inc. (Steve Walter) Discuss BUGusa Inc. Liability for WaltersÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. WIRETIME Inc. has made it its main mission to infiltrate its competitor and retrieve high value information from BUGusa Inc. by all means necessary. WIRETIME Inc. sends one of its employees, (STEVE) to apply for a position at BUGusa. Such is their luck that Steve, not only gets hired, but he secures a position within BUGusa Inc. research and development department. BUGusa Inc. failed to realize that Steve was an employee at WIRETIME Inc. thus placing the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ sensitive information at risk. While at BUGusa, Steve was picked up by an attentive security guard (Walter) who found out through the grapevine and investigation, that Steve was a spy amongst them working for the competitor. Walter decided to approach Steve and take him in to a soundproof room, and retrieve the truth from Steve through intimidating threats against his physical safety for six hours. Steve, of course fearing for his physical well being, disclosed his purpose in the company what information he has passed along and whom he truly worked for. While WaltersÃ¢â¬â¢s frustration with Steve is understandable, his handling of the situation is totally unacceptable and carries some penalties with it. Walter created an atmosphere of stress, mentally and physically against an employee, regardless of his true intentions; BUGusa Inc. should of done its homework through background checks against Steve and probably saved itself the headache. Nevertheless, WaltersÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior was thuggish and criminal thus creating the tort of assault. Walter could have held Steve and called the police, then followed through with charges against Steve and WIRETIME Inc. but his course of action may result in Steve goi ng after BUGusa Inc through vicarious liability. This liability holds BUGusa Inc. as responsible for WaltersÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and actions while performing his normal duties in the workplace. 4th Scenario: Parking lot of BUGusa Inc. Crime problem. What defense if any, may be available to BUGusa Inc.? As with all working environments, it is the legal and implied duty of any employer to provide a healthy and safe work environment for its employees, vendors and any other patrons visiting or performing work at any job site within the United States of America. Here we can see that this particular BUGusa Inc. branch that is located in Shady town USA, has been the victim of multiple attacks on its employees and its vendors and also fell pray to vandalism. This problematic issue is well known to the residents of the community where BUGusa has its building; this leads me to know that management at BUGusa Inc. must have also been aware of this problem and failed to address it properly. I do not see any available defense for BUGusa Inc. on the matter of the vendor being attacked and robbed while waiting to deliver goods at the facility mentioned above. BUGusa has a duty to its employees, vendors and any patron performing any job within its premises to provide adequate safety measures that w ill deter thiefÃ¢â¬â¢s from braking in to cars and vandalizing company property, but most importantly from harming the people within its property at all times. Having a well lit parking lot means all lights are working properly and to their full capacity, and in this case, they had a few lights that were not operating at all. Also, well-lit areas are not enough security against a hostile environment that has in the past proven to be dangerous against employees and vendors. The company breached its duty by not upgrading its security measures after the first reported assaults against its employees, this negligence caused that the vendor become another victim of the crime wave affecting its private property. The injury to the employees and vendor are financial, mental and may well be physical if not yet. The tort that applies here is negligence on the part of BUGusa Inc. If they would have reevaluated their security stance against the rise in crime and violence on their property and its surrounding community, it could have avoided such negligence. 5th Scenario: Randy and Brian (BUGusa Inc.) What defense may be available to BUGusa Inc.? The following Scenario holds two parties as responsible for failing to perform their required duties as responsible citizens and employees. By both parties being negligent, they are both are potentially at fault; they violated personal and business duty, breached their duties to their safety and business safety, causing an accident and damages to private and business property not to mention the physical injuries if any, and obvious financial injuries to personal and business property. Both Randy and Brian were negligent in their actions, Brian, as an employee of BUGusa Inc. could have avoided the crash if he were following the speed limit or driving in accordance with road and area conditions. Randy failed to obey the yield sign and assumed the risk of being impacted by another vehicle. Here we can apply comparative or contributory negligence because they were both at fault, if BUGusa Inc. can prove that Randy had more to do with the cause of the accident then they may well win the c ase. 6th Scenario: Sally may have a successful case against BUGusa Inc. for what Tort? Just as in the actual case of General Motors, BUGusa Inc. failed to notify the consumers of the potential hazards of using their products. BUGusa tried to save money at the risk of consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s safety by taking shortcuts in the manufacturing and assembly process, knowing that such shortcuts may result in short circuit and in some cases harm to its product users they moved forward with its sale and fielding. Strict Product Liability Tort states that the manufacturer, distributor and seller are responsible for any harm and or injury caused by failure to inform of manufacturing defects or design defects. By designing the product without the necessary insulation, Sally was exposed to a short and suffered injuries. BUGusa Inc. is clearly in hot water and can be liable for all harm and injuries stemming from this negligent act. References Cornell University. (2014). Tort. Retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/tort Expert Law. (2014). Negligence / Personal Injury. Retrieved from http://www.expertlaw.com/library/personal_injury/negligence.html Hill, M. (2011). The Legal Environment of Business. A Managerial Approach: Theory to Practice. Phoenix, AZ: Copyright Ã © McGraw-Hill Company.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Technology and Education When I first stepped foot into a Towson University classroom I was surprised by what I saw. What I saw was something I thought only belonged in corporate meeting rooms. This device I speak of was a digital overhead projector. For me this was something new and very exciting. Where I went to school the idea of technology was a television with a VCR on a rolling stand. This change in technology was far superior than I had ever imagined and this is why I was I chose this topic to research. With all of the new technology that is being produced daily and so much of it beneficial to our education system what topic could be more interesting. The three topics I would like to cover in my research are the pros and cons of technology in education, current technology being used in education, and the future of technology in the classroom. When debating on whether or not technology in education is a useful resource there are many arguments from both sides of the argument with the proÃ¢â¬â¢s outweighing the cons. There are many ways that technology can improve the education of children all over the country. Using technology can improve a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance when all of these factors are present, when technology provides the student a chance to work with the technology being used to teach the class. Also when the technology is directly tied into the course and when the parents and other people in the community support the technology being used. There is also the convenience factor that makes technology so useful in the classroom. With digital projectors teachers can put all of their notes onto power point slides and teach straight from those instead of having to take time to write everything on the board and if a studen... ...many more online classes and schools. Right now there are a few online schools that have proven to be very successful and many schools are offering online classes. In the upcoming years the amount of these schools and classes will without a doubt increase. Technology has and will play a vital part in education. In the past it was very difficult to teach students something other than what was in the text book or in the local library. With the advancement of technology and the internet teachers can now teach a broader range of topics that students could research on the internet. Also with all of this technology it makes the learning process simpler and somewhat more enjoyable. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t the world would be where it is and go where it is going without this technology, it creates a very heterogeneous society and allows people to study things they never thought they could.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s Maxims have been criticised for being too Anglo-centric. Michael Clyne proposes revisions to the four maxims in his 1994 book Intercultural Communication at Work. Do ClyneÃ¢â¬â¢s revisions of this model go far enough in universally accounting for intercultural conversation? Why or why not? GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s General Cooperative Principle has been under continuous debate for the past three decades. It is mainly through the maxims that GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s paradigm has been challenged as highly ethnocentric, however such readings may tend to take the maxims too literally rather than as Ã¢â¬Å"reference points for language interchangeÃ¢â¬ (Allan as cited in Clyne, 1994, p. 11). There is some agreement in this, but as suggested by Mey (1994, p. 74), the principle and maxims are Ã¢â¬Å"always defined relative to a particular cultureÃ¢â¬ . It is this idea of cultural values underlying communication that has caused the contention of GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s cooperative principle and its subordinate maxims. Many linguists (Keenan, 1976; Wierzbicka, 1985; Clyne, 1994; Bowe & Martin, 2007) have criticised GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s Maxims for being too ethnocentric Ã¢â¬â claiming that its assumptions are based on Anglo-Saxon norms and culture. This Anglo-centric nature is problematic for intercultural communication as the maxims are inapplicable to many cultural values systems; namely European and Southeast Asian cultures where harmony, respect and restraint play a key role (Clyne, 1994, p. 192). In an attempt to better reflect intercultural conversation, Clyne (1994) has proposed a set of revised Ã¢â¬ËmaximsÃ¢â¬â¢ to make GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s principles more universal. His revision of GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s model certainly accounts for a wider variety of contexts and cultures, however it cannot be said to universally account for intercultural conversation. As conversation is unique to its context and participants, in reality no single theory could universally embody real life language use. Although people of all backgrounds generally do attempt to facilitate successful communication (if it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t conflict with their purpose or cultural values), factors unique to each participant can affect any given conversation. Thus, it c an be said that while individuals are conditioned by their culture and environment, discourse patterns will always be influenced by personality factors (Watts, 1991) and pragmatic and intercultural competence. On the surface, GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s cooperative principle seems to provide littleÃ difficulty for intercultural analysis; its degree of uncertainty is certainly appropriate for discussions of cultural diversity. Making a contribution Ã¢â¬Å"such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engagedÃ¢â¬ (Grice, 1975, p. 45) seems to allow for the acceptance of different purposes and requirements in different contexts, and does not exclude the influence of norms associated with a variety of different speech communities. Although intercultural analysis was not GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s main concern, he has defined the discourse of his cooperative principle as Ã¢â¬Å"concerted enterprisesÃ¢â¬ that allow Ã¢â¬Å"a high degree of diversity in the motivations underlying quite meagre common objectivesÃ¢â¬ (1989: 369). Grice himself makes no explicit claims of universality, using characteristically modest language to refe r to a Ã¢â¬Å"first approximation of a general principleÃ¢â¬ (1989: 26). He is extremely careful not to overstate the case for Ã¢â¬ËcooperationÃ¢â¬â¢; suggesting that Ã¢â¬Å"each participant recognizes in them (talk exchanges), to some extent, a common purpose, or at least a mutually accepted directionÃ¢â¬ (1989, p. 26). It should be pointed out however, that GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s maxims depict an idealised and simplified language use, whereas reality is much more complex and multi-dimensional. In everyday conversations, telling the entire truth might be seen as impolite or inappropriate in certain cultures. There also tend to be intercultural differences that do not always follow a universal principle. Some cultures and languages (i.e. Chinese) often dictate that their speakers use indirect speech in conversation, which means they are unable to follow GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s maxims of quantity and manner. In such cases, there is a clash between GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s maxims and the pragmatic rules of conversation, which are culturally sensitive. For example, when being offered a drink, a typical Chinese person would automatically say no the first time, while expecting the offer to be made at least two or three times more. This resembles a kind of phatic language communication; saying no, but not really meaning no. In this sort of situation, if someone doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t adhere to the cultural norm Ã¢â¬â choosing to follow GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s maxims instead, then they would sound odd and out of place. The above example demonstrates that GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s maxims arenÃ¢â¬â¢t relevant in all contexts as they clash with certain cultural values systems. Many linguistsÃ (Clyne, 1994; Hymes, 1986; Loveday, 1983; Walsh, 2009) have picked up on this discrepancy between theory and data, claiming that the maxims are only relevant to the English speaking Western world. In particular, Clyne (1994) has pointed out that they have limited relevance to cultures where content and knowledge are core values. For example, speakers of Malagasy, Ã¢â¬Å"whose form of co-operation seems to consist in making their contributions as opaque, convoluted and non-perspicuous as possibleÃ¢â¬ (Keenan as cited in Mey, 1994, p. 74) could be seen as flouting the Maxim of Quantity. This is because information, especially Ã¢â¬ËnewÃ¢â¬â¢ information gives the holder a certain amount of prestige, thus Malagasy people tend to use indirect, evasive language. It is obvious then, that environmental factors, social interaction and cultural norms need to be considered when interpreting conversational implicature. This is reinforced by Hymes (1986), who notes that Grice was correct in assuming that any culture will have some sort of orientation towards telling the truth (quality), being informative (quantity), staying on topic (relation), and being clear (manner), but that this orientation and how it is articulated cannot be assumed to be the same in all cultures. It is necessary then to recognize that each language and/or culture will have its own settings for each of the maxims (Bowe & Martin, 2007). In an attempt to reduce the cultural bias of GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s maxims, Clyne (1994) has proposed revisions to the four maxims (quantity, quality, relation, manner) by considering different cultural norms and expectations. An example of this is the modification of the maxim of quality so that it reads Ã¢â¬Ëdo not say what you believe to be in opposition to your cultural norms of truth, harmony, charity, and/or respect.Ã¢â¬â¢ This revision accounts for situations in which the hearer may not want to respond truthfully in order to preserve face or harmony (Lakoff, 1973). This cultural value of harmony is especially prevalent in Chinese and Vietnamese cultures. Nguyen (1991) claims that communalism and collectivism has enforced harmony as a central cultural value in the Vietnamese people. Because of this emphasis on harmonious relations, Vietnamese frequently utilise ambiguous communication behaviours in order to avoid conflict. Although this language use could flout one or more of Grice Ã¢â¬â¢s maxims, by introducing cultural parameters such as truth, harmony and face, ClyneÃ¢â¬â¢s (1994) revisions can better account forÃ intercultural conversation. ClyneÃ¢â¬â¢s (1994) revised maxims for intercultural analysis certainly have more regard for the communicative patterns of non-English cultures; however, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t altogether meet the needs of intercultural communication. In intercultural communication a high level of pragmatic competence is central to an interlocutors performance. As Thomas (1984) points out, it is commonly the differences in pragmatic competence that are problematic in intercultural conversation. Furthermore, it is possible to have achieved a very high level of linguistic proficiency, while having a relatively low level of socio-pragmatic proficiency. This can result in speakers using a language, which for some reason is deemed inappropriate, incomprehensible or even offensive (Thomas, 1984). This will be demonstrated by the following example: An Australian manager has been reassigned to the Athens office of his organization and is assigned a Greek secretary. On a daily basis, he assigns work to her by using conventional indirect requests such as Ã¢â¬ËCould you type this letter?Ã¢â¬â¢ One day, she complains to a colleague, Ã¢â¬ËI wish he would just tell me what to do instead of asking me. After all, heÃ¢â¬â¢s the boss and IÃ¢â¬â¢m here to do what he wants.Ã¢â¬â¢ In the above example, we have a mixture of assumptions about the rights and obligations of two parties in a relationship characterized by asymmetrical distribution of power, and the way this power will be exercised and acknowledged. The Australian boss attends to the face wants of his secretary by attempting to minimize the power distance between the two. This is done by the use of politeness strategies that seemingly give the subordinate the option not to perform a requested act Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËCould you type this letter?Ã¢â¬â¢ Thomas (1995, p. 161) observes that Ã¢â¬Ëallowing options (or giving the appearance of allowing options) is absolutely central to Western notions of politenessÃ¢â¬â¢. An Australian secretary would presumably know that a direct, on-record refusal of this request would be face threatening to her boss Ã¢â¬â as well as threatening to her own job. She could potentially employ indirect refusal strategies (i.e. hints), which would avoid on record refusal andÃ sustain the appearance of harmony. As Green (cited in Thomas, 1995, p. 147) points out Ã¢â¬Å"the speaker is really only going through the motions of offering options or showing respect for the addresseeÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. The offer may be a facade, the options nonviable, and the respect a sham. It is the fact that an effort was made to go through the motions at all that makes the act an act of politeness.Ã¢â¬ It is clear that in this example the two parties have not yet negotiated a shared set of norms. The secretary acknowledges and accepts the power difference between herself and her boss. She is dependent on him for work, and she accepts that he has the right to tell her to carry out various secretarial duties. To her, the Australian boss seems insincere when he requests her to do something for him, because as far as she is concerned, the power relationship admits no options. That is; she does not interpret the deference that her boss displays towards her as an act of politeness. There are obviously socio-pragmatic differences between the two parties. The Australian boss has carried his socio-pragmatic norms into the Greek setting, where they violate the expectations of his Greek subordinate. Each party is defining and acting within the situation differently. Despite this, their encounters are not entirely unsuccessful: the boss makes requests for work that the secretary completes. However, the Greek secretary feels dissatisfied with her bossÃ¢â¬â¢s politeness strategies. It can be said that neither party is completely interculturally competent. That is; communicating in a culturally competent way requires interlocutors to learn about the ways culture influences communicative utterances of individuals concerned. After all, if the secretary constantly doubts the sincerity of her boss, the relationship is threatened. And if the boss is unaware of the effects of this, he may experience a rude awakening in the near future. Based on what has been discussed, it can be concluded that GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s maxims cannot be taken as absolute rules; this would be neither right nor practicable. Language is not as clear-cut as mathematical formulas; it frequently integrates with culture and society. Thus cultural and pragmatic considerations are vital to successful intercultural communication. Moreover, linguistic competency may not always cause a breakdown inÃ communication; very often when language form and cultural norm clash, culture supersedes language form. ClyneÃ¢â¬â¢s (1994) revisions of the conversational maxims better reflect cultural variation, however they do not universally account for intercultural communication. The examples aforementioned demonstrate that factors such as pragmatic and intercultural competence also play a key role. Intercultural communication then becomes something that is negotiated at local level by participants, involving mutual adaptation. Difficulties may arise, of course, in the process of negotiation through limitations in the socio-pragmatic and strategic competence of some or all participants. After all, there are individual differences in these competencies, and as Agar (1994) points out, we have to remember that in any intercultural conversation, Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢s persons not cultures that are in contactÃ¢â¬â¢. References: Agar, M. (1994). The intercultural frame. In International Journal of Intercultural Relations 18/2:221-237. Bowe, H. J. & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across cultures: Mutual understanding in a global world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clyne, M. (1994). Inter-cultural Communication at Work: Cultural Values in Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and Conversation. In P. Cole & J. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press. Grice, P. (1989). Studies in the Way of Words. London: Harvard University Press. Hymes, D. H. (1986). Discourse: Scope without depth. In International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 57, 49-89. Keenan, E. O. (1976). On the universality of conversational implicatures. Language in Society 5.67-80. Lakoff, R. (1973). The logic of politeness, or minding your pÃ¢â¬â¢s and qÃ¢â¬â¢s. In Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. 292-305. Loveday, L. (1983). Rhetoric patterns in conflict: The sociocultural relativity of discourse organizing processes. In Journal of Pragmatics, 7, 169-90. Mey, J. (1994). Pragmatics. An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell. Thomas, J. (1984) Cross-cultural discourse as Ã¢â¬Å"unequal encounterÃ¢â¬ : Toward a pragmatic analysis. In Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 226-235. Thomas, J. (1995). Meaning in Interaction. An Introduction to Pragmatics. Harlow /Munich: Longman. Walsh, M. (2009). Some neo-Gricean maxims for aboriginal Australia. Retrieved from http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/research/docs/alw/Walsh09.pdf (accessed 22/10/2013) Watts, R. J. (1991). Power in family discourse. Berlin: Mouton. Wierzbicka, A. (1991). Cross-Cultural Pragmatics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter Wierzbicka, A. (1985). Different cultures, different languages, different speech acts. In Journal of Pragmatics 9.145-78.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Inclusion in the Public School Classroom What do we do with children with disabilities in the public school? Do we include them in the general education class with the Ã¢â¬Å"regularÃ¢â¬ learning population or do we separate them to learn in a special environment more suited to their needs? The problem is many people have argued what is most effective, full inclusion where students with all ranges of disabilities are included in regular education classes for the entire day, or partial inclusion where children spend part of their day in a regular education setting and the rest of the day in a special education or resource class for the opportunity to work in a smaller group setting on specific needs. The need for care for children with identifiedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This law has seen numerous updates throughout the years the most recent being in 2004 and its final regulations published in 2006. Those in favor of a full inclusion setting for disabled children argue that the benefit to these children being among their peers outweighs that of any learning disruption to the regular education students. According to Art Shapiro, a special education professor at Kean University, Ã¢â¬Å"inclusion improves learning for both classified and non-classified students. When youngsters who have learning problems are included, students without disabilities often do better academically. A teacher is more apt to break instruction into finer parts or repeat directions if he or she has a youngster in the room who deals with deafness, blindness, or a developmental disability.Ã¢â¬ (Shapiro) In fact it is argued that regular education students that are exposed to a variety of disabled peers tend to have a higher tolerance to differences with people and less of an anxiety about approaching, befriending, and helping those with more needs then themselves. As this author from ehow.com points out; Ã ¢â¬Å"Students with disabilities are often able to learn better because of the increased confidence that comes from not being segregated into classes forShow MoreRelatedInclusion of Students with Learning Disabilities Essay1618 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Inclusion is a topic that is still at the forefront of educational controversy, in the classroom and also in Congress. According to The Cyclopedic Education Dictionary, inclusion can be defined in two ways: one, inclusion can be defined as the placement of disabled children in a general classroom setting for the entire school day and two, inclusion can be defined as the placement of disabled students into a general classroom setting for part of the day while they are placed in a special settingRead MoreHistorical Background Of Special Education Essay1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe total number of enrollment in the public school were receiving federally supported special education programsÃ¢â¬ . (National Center for Education Statistics) The goal of special education is for all students with or without a disability to be educated in the least restrictive environment. It is the common belief that special needs students should be placed in the general education classroom with their n on-disabled peers a term called inclusion. Inclusion hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t come easy! There has been severalRead MoreInclusion Is The Educational Practice Of Educating Children With Disabilities819 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesInclusion is the educational practice of educating children with disabilities in the classroom with children without disabilities. In the past, people believed that children with disabilities were not capable of learning. This thought process hindered children with disabilities from being included in the general education population. After the ruling of Brown v Board of Education, families with children with disabilities began to fight for the rights of their children. Various families believed thatRead MoreH. Research Paper.1378 Words 6 Pages. Research Paper. Inclusive1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInclusive education means that all students in a school, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area, become part of the school community. They are included in the feel ing of belonging among other students, teachers, and support staff. The educational practice known as, full inclusion may have negative effects on the self-esteem of a special needs child. In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, also known as Public Law94-142. Before this law came into effectRead MoreInclusion, The Educational Practice Of Children With Disabilities1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInclusion, the educational practice of instructing children with disabilities as well as children without disabilities in one classroom, is a very controversial topic regarding the education of students in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Ã¢â¬Å"Inclusion seeks to establish collaborative, supportive, and nurturing communities of learners that are based on giving all students the services and accommodations they need to learn, as well as respecting and learning from each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s individual differencesÃ¢â¬ (Salend 5). TheRead More Research Paper1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInclusive education means that all students in a school, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area, become part of the school community. They are included in the feeling of belonging among other students, teachers, and support staff. The educational practice known as, full inclusion may have negative effects on the self-esteem of a special needs child. In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, also known as Public Law94-142. Before this law came into effectRead MoreCommon Core State Standards Essay1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Common Core State Standards (CCSS) identify expectations of what the students will be able to achieve by the end of the school year. The standards provide teachers and curriculum developers the opportunity to use their best findings and available tools to meet these ends (California Department of Education, 2013). The reader needs to understand that the teaching principles implemented by individuals who received extensiveÃ training in college-based teacher training programs in order to understandRead MoreInclusion Has Been A Major Topic Between Educators And1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInclusion has been a major topic between educators and parents of special needs children for years. Many believe that it would a good idea to educate general education children in the same classroom along with special needs children, including those with multiple disabilities. And then there are many that believe special education and general education can actually can be accomplished in one classroom along with one general education teacher and one special education teacher working together , teachingRead MoreSchool Districts Are Financially Struggling And Looking For Ways For Saving Money961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSchool districts are financially struggling and looking for ways to save money. One of the methods that they have implemented is to decrease the number of students in Special Education c lasses by using inclusion, also called mainstreaming, by having the students included in general education classes. A districts Average Per Pupil Expenditure (APPE) can vary significantly for Special Education. The services are defined in each studentÃ¢â¬â¢s Individual Education Plan (IEP). Whereas one studentÃ¢â¬â¢s IEPRead MoreTypes Of Learning Disabilities And The Placement Options946 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfriends and a push in the right direction. Where the child is placed depends on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and ability to learn in the specific environment. This paper discusses the different types of learning disabilities and the placement options in a public schools. BODY Before a child is ever considered for special education they are evaluated by a teacher, principal, and/or a healthcare professional. After the child has been evaluated they make a recommendation for the parents to consider. If the parent